Jewel Cichlids Care, Breeding, Tank Mates, and More!

Side view of a colorful and vibrant jewel cichlid fish
Dr. Mollie Newton
Published by Dr. Mollie Newton PHD| Senior Editor
Last updated: June 15, 2024
Review Process and Evaluation Criteria
We conduct hands-on testing for all the products highlighted in our reviews and guides. Through anonymous product ordering and involving an independent team of testers, we gather direct experience to offer recommendations backed by data.

Tired of boring fish in your tank? Meet **jewel cichlids**, the splash of color you’ve been looking for. Jewel cichlids burst with vibrant colors and fascinating behaviors that will transform your aquarium. Discover their secrets and learn how to build the perfect home for these lively gems. Get ready to explore the **exciting world of jewel cichlids**. These amazing fish will turn your tank into an undersea spectacle like no other.

Quick Summary

  • Jewel cichlids have sleek bodies with vibrant colors like red, orange, yellow, and blue.
  • Adult jewel cichlids reach 3 to 5 inches in length.
  • With proper care, jewel cichlids can live up to 10 years or more.

Origin and Natural Habitat of Jewel Cichlids

Jewel cichlids, also known as Hemichromis bimaculatus, are fascinating fish that originate from the rivers and lakes of West Africa. Specifically, they can be found in countries such as Nigeria, Cameroon, and Guinea. These vibrant creatures have adapted to thrive in their natural habitat, which typically consists of slow-moving or stagnant waters with dense vegetation.

In their native environment, jewel cichlid inhabit areas where the water flow is relatively calm. This preference for slow-moving waters allows them to navigate through the dense vegetation that provides shelter and protection. The lush greenery not only acts as a hiding place but also serves as a source of food for these omnivorous fish.

One interesting aspect of their natural habitat is the presence of various microhabitats within the larger bodies of water they inhabit. Jewel cichlid is known to seek out specific areas within these environments that suit their needs at different life stages. For instance, during spawning season, they often choose shallower areas with suitable substrate for egg-laying.


Close-up image of a jewel cichlid
(1) Close-up image of a jewel cichlid

Jewel cichlid is known for their vibrant and striking appearance. These fish are adorned with a beautiful array of colors, including shades of red, orange, yellow, and blue. Their bodies are sleek and elongated, with a slightly flattened shape. The fins of jewel cichlid is also quite remarkable, with long and flowing dorsal fin, and anal fins that add to their overall elegance.

One of the most eye-catching features of jewel cichlids is their iridescent scales. Depending on the angle of light, their scales can shimmer and reflect different colors, creating a mesmerizing effect. This iridescence is especially prominent in male jewel cichlids, who often display more vibrant colors than females.


It’s important to note that the appearance of jewel cichlids can vary depending on their mood and environment. When they are happy and healthy, their colors tend to be more vibrant and intense. On the other hand, if they are stressed or in poor conditions, their colors may become duller.


Adult jewel cichlids typically reach a size of 3 to 5 inches (7 to 13 cm). These vibrant and colorful fish are known for their striking appearance, and their size adds to their allure. Interestingly, males tend to grow larger than females, showcasing impressive lengths that can sometimes exceed the average range.

What Affects the Size Of Jewel Cichlids

  • Environmental factors such as food availability and habitat quality can affect the size of jewel cichlid.
  • A well-nourished and spacious environment can lead to larger jewel cichlid, while a lack of resources and overcrowding can result in stunted growth.
  • Poor water conditions can negatively impact the health and growth of jewel cichlid.
  • The age of the jewel cichlid can also influence its size.
  • Jewel cichlids grow rapidly during their juvenile stage and then slow down as they reach adulthood.
  • Providing a suitable environment and proper care can help ensure that a jewel cichlid reaches its maximum size potential.
  • Genetics play a role in determining maximum potential size, but environmental factors significantly influence whether this potential is reached.
  • Jewel cichlid raised in spacious tanks with appropriate water conditions have been observed to grow larger compared to those kept in cramped or suboptimal environments.


With proper care, jewel cichlid can live up to 10 years or even longer in captivity. Their lifespan is influenced by various factors such as water quality, diet, genetics, and stress levels. Providing a suitable environment is crucial for ensuring their longevity.

Factors Affecting Lifespan

  1. Water Quality: Maintaining optimal water conditions is essential for the health and longevity of jewel cichlid. They thrive in clean water with appropriate pH levels (around 7-8) and temperature (24-28°C). Regular water changes, filtration systems, and monitoring ammonia and nitrate levels are vital to prevent diseases that can shorten their lifespan.
  2. Diet: Proper nutrition plays a significant role in the lifespan of a jewel cichlid. Offering a balanced diet rich in high-quality pellets or flakes specifically formulated for cichlids is crucial. Supplementing their diet with occasional live or frozen foods like brine shrimp or bloodworms provides essential nutrients and enhances their overall health.
  3. Genetics: The genetic makeup of individual fish can influence their predisposition to certain diseases or conditions that may impact their lifespan. Breeding from healthy stock with good genetics can increase the chances of offspring living longer lives.
  4. Stress Levels: Jewel cichlid is sensitive to stress, which can negatively affect their immune system and overall well-being. Minimizing stressors such as aggressive tankmates, sudden environmental changes, overcrowding, or inadequate hiding spots helps promote a healthier and longer life for these vibrant fish.

Caring for Jewel Cichlids

Male hand cleaning aquarium using microfiber towel.

Jewel cichlid, also known as Hemichromis bimaculatus, are vibrant and beautiful freshwater fish that make a stunning addition to any home aquarium. If you’re considering keeping a jewel cichlid in your freshwater tank, it’s important to understand their care requirements to ensure they thrive in their new environment.

Tank Size

Jewel cichlids are beautiful and vibrant fish that can make a great addition to your aquarium. When it comes to their tank size, it is important to provide them with enough space to thrive and be comfortable.

…a tank size of at least 30 gallons is recommended for a pair of jewel cichlids.

Ideally, a tank size of at least 30 gallons is recommended for a pair of jewel cichlids. This will give them enough room to swim and establish territories. If you plan on keeping more than one pair or adding other fish to the tank, you will need a larger tank to accommodate their needs.


Jewel cichlid can be territorial and aggressive, especially during breeding and spawning. Providing them with enough space will help minimize any potential conflicts and stress among the fish.

Water Parameters

To ensure the health and well-being of your jewel cichlid, it is important to maintain suitable water parameters in their tank.


Jewel cichlid thrives in a temperature range of 75-82°F (24-28°C). It is important to provide a consistent and stable temperature within this range to prevent stress and promote optimal growth.

pH Level

Jewel cichlid prefers slightly acidic to neutral water conditions. The ideal pH range for these cichlids is between 6.5 and 7.5. Regular monitoring of the pH level is recommended to ensure it remains within the desired range.

Water Hardness

Jewel cichlids are adaptable to a wide range of water hardness levels. However, a moderate to slightly hard water hardness of 8-12 dGH is generally preferred. This can be achieved by using a mix of tap water and filtered water, or by adding appropriate water conditioners.

Food and Diet

Dry aquarium fish food flakes in plastic containers
Dry aquarium fish food flakes in plastic containers

Jewel cichlid is known to have a diverse and omnivorous diet, which allows them to thrive in various environments. Providing them with the right food is crucial for their health and overall well-being.

Meeting Nutritional Needs

It is essential to ensure they receive enough food to meet their nutritional needs. High-quality pellets or flakes specifically formulated for cichlids should be the foundation of their diet. These commercially available options are designed to provide a balanced mix of proteins, fats, vitamins, and minerals necessary for their growth and vitality.

Live and Frozen Foods

While pellets or flakes make up the core of their diet, it is also important to supplement their meals with live or frozen foods. Jewel cichlid enjoys hunting down live prey, so offering them occasional treats like brine shrimp, bloodworms for aquarium fish, or daphnia can help fulfill their natural instincts. These live foods not only provide additional nutrients but also offer mental stimulation as they actively chase after them.

Vegetable Matter in the Diet

In addition to live foods, jewel cichlids can benefit from consuming vegetable matter. Blanched spinach or peas can be offered as an occasional source of fiber and essential vitamins. Adding some greens to their diet helps mimic what they would consume in the wild where plant matter forms part of their natural feeding habits.

Specific Foods for Different Life Stages

It’s worth noting that different life stages of jewel cichlids may require specific types of food. For example, fry (young fish) have smaller mouths and need appropriately sized particles. Specialized fry foods are available that cater specifically to these tiny mouths and provide the necessary nutrition for healthy growth.

Algae as a Supplement, Not a Main Food Source

While jewel cichlids are not considered strict algae eaters, they may nibble on algae occasionally. However, relying solely on algae as a food source is insufficient for a jewel cichlid diet and their nutritional needs. Therefore, it is crucial to provide a well-rounded diet that includes the aforementioned options.

Behavior and Temperament

Jewel cichlids are fascinating creatures with a behavior that sets them apart from other fish species. Their aggressive tendencies and territorial nature make them both intriguing and challenging to keep in an aquarium setting.

Aggressive Behavior During Breeding Periods

These vibrant fish are well-known for their aggressive behaviors, particularly during breeding periods, a jewel cichlid can become quite fierce. They may display aggressive postures, such as flaring their fins and vividly displaying their colors, as a warning to potential intruders.

Aggression Towards Tank Mates

Aggression is not limited to just other fish; a jewel cichlid may also exhibit fin-nipping behavior if they feel threatened or overcrowded. This can be distressing for tank mates who share the same space. To minimize aggression and ensure a harmonious environment in your aquarium, it is crucial to provide ample space and suitable tank mates for these feisty fish.

Establishing Individual Territories to Reduce Aggression

One effective way to reduce aggression among jewel cichlids is by providing them with enough space to establish individual territories.

A larger tank with plenty of hiding spots, caves, and plants will allow each fish to claim its own area…

A larger tank with plenty of hiding spots, caves, and plants will allow each fish to claim its own area without feeling the need to constantly defend it against others. This helps alleviate stress and minimizes aggressive encounters.

Feeding Strategies to Manage Aggression

Feeding strategies can also play a role in managing aggression. Providing a varied diet that includes high-quality pellets, flakes, and frozen foods will help satisfy their natural predatory instincts and reduce any aggressive tendencies caused by hunger or competition for food.

Jewel Cichlid Tank Mates

Parrot Cichlid and Jewel Cichlid Near the Aquarium Substrate
Parrot Cichlid and Jewel Cichlid Near the Aquarium Substrate

Jewel cichlids are beautiful and vibrant freshwater aquarium fish that can add a splash of color to any tank. However, it is important to choose their tank mates carefully to ensure a harmonious and peaceful cichlid community tank.

Tank Mates for Jewel Cichlids: Considerations and Recommendations

When selecting tank mates for a jewel cichlid, it is crucial to consider their temperament and aggression levels. Jewel cichlids are known to be moderately aggressive, especially during breeding or territorial disputes. Therefore, choosing other semi-aggressive species can help maintain a balanced environment in the aquarium.

Suitable Tank Mates for Jewel Cichlids

One suitable option for tank mates is the convict cichlid species (Amatitlania nigrofasciata). These fish have similar temperaments and can coexist peacefully with a jewel cichlid. Furthermore, firemouth cichlids (Thorichthys meeki) also make good companions due to their comparable aggression levels.

Avoiding Incompatible Tank Mates for Jewel Cichlids

On the other hand, it is essential to avoid keeping jewel fish or cichlids with small, peaceful fish that may become targets of aggression. Species like neon tetras or guppies should be avoided as they may not be able to handle the assertive nature of a jewel cichlid.

Coexisting Peacefully: Larger Tetra Species as Tank Mates

While caution must be exercised when introducing smaller fish into a jewel cichlid tank, there are larger tetra species that can coexist peacefully with these vibrant cichlids. Fish such as Buenos Aires tetras (Hyphessobrycon anisitsi) or red-eye tetras (Moenkhausia sanctaefilomenae) can withstand the occasional chase from jewel cichlids without significant issues.

Feeding Habits and Tank Mate Selection for Jewel Cichlids

It’s also important to consider the feeding habits of different fish when choosing suitable jewel cichlid tank mates. Avoid housing them with slow-moving bottom-dwelling fish that may be outcompeted for food. Jewel cichlids are voracious eaters and can quickly consume all the food before other fish have a chance to feed. Therefore, it is advisable to select tank mates that can hold their own during feeding time.


Jewel cichlids, also known as Hemichromis bimaculatus, are fascinating fish that exhibit unique breeding behaviors.

Breeding season for jewel cichlids typically occurs during the warmer months when water temperatures rise. During this time, these vibrant fish engage in a courtship ritual that culminates in the spawning process.

How To Breed Jewel Cichlids

  1. Setting up the breeding tank: Start by preparing a separate breeding tank for your jewel cichlids. The tank should be spacious enough to accommodate the pair of fish comfortably. Provide hiding spots such as caves or rocks to mimic their natural habitat.
  2. Choosing a compatible pair: Select a male and female jewel cichlid that are healthy and in prime breeding condition. It’s important to ensure that they are compatible and show signs of courtship behavior.
  3. Conditioning the fish: Before introducing the pair to the breeding tank, it is crucial to condition them for breeding. Feed them a varied and nutritious diet consisting of high-quality pellets, frozen or live foods to enhance their overall health and reproductive capabilities.
  4. Creating the right environment: Maintain optimal water conditions in the breeding tank. Jewel cichlids prefer slightly acidic water with a pH level between 6.5 and 7.5. The temperature should be around 77-82°F (25-28°C). Use a reliable heater and thermometer to monitor and regulate the water temperature.
  5. Introducing the pair: Once the fish are conditioned and the tank is ready, carefully introduce the male and female jewel cichlids to the breeding tank. Monitor their behavior closely to ensure they are getting along and displaying courtship rituals.
  6. Courtship and spawning: Jewel cichlids are known for their elaborate courtship displays. The male will often display vibrant colors and perform intricate dances to attract the female. Once the female is ready to spawn, she will lay her eggs on a flat surface or in a carefully chosen cave. The male will then fertilize the eggs.
  7. Egg care and fry rearing: After spawning, it’s important to remove the adult fish from the tank to prevent them from eating the eggs. The eggs will typically hatch within 2-3 days, and the fry will emerge. At this stage, it’s important to provide a suitable environment for the fry to grow and develop.

Jewel Cichlid Fry Care

The water conditions for the fry should be optimal. Maintain a temperature of around 78-82°F (25-28°C) and ensure good water quality. Regular water changes and the use of a reliable filtration system are essential to keep the water clean and free from harmful substances.

Feeding The Fry

Feeding the fry is another crucial aspect of their care. Initially, they can be fed with commercially available fry food or crushed flakes. As they grow, you can introduce small live or frozen foods such as baby brine shrimp or daphnia. It is important to feed them small amounts multiple times a day to ensure they receive enough nutrition.

Adding Plants In Their Tank

Keeping the fry in a well-planted tank can provide them with hiding places and mimic their natural environment. Adding some floating plants can also help diffuse the light and create a sense of security for the fry.

Regular observation is important during the early stages of the fry’s development. Keep an eye out for any signs of illness or stress, and take appropriate action if needed. It is also important to monitor their growth and ensure they are developing properly.

Frequently Asked Questions

Are Jewel Cichlids Aggressive?

Jewel cichlids are known for their moderate to aggressive behavior. They can be territorial and might exhibit aggression towards tankmates, especially during breeding or when establishing their territory.

How many jewel cichlids should be kept together?

It’s recommended to keep jewel cichlids in pairs or small groups. A breeding pair or a trio (1 male and 2 females) is a common arrangement that can reduce aggression and encourage natural behaviors.

What size tank does a jewel cichlid need?

For a single jewel cichlid, a tank of at least 30 gallons is suitable. If you plan to keep a pair or a small group, a larger tank of 50 gallons or more is advisable to provide enough space and reduce territorial disputes.

Are jewel cichlids rare?

Jewel cichlids are not considered rare in the aquarium trade. They are widely available in pet stores and online platforms due to their popularity among hobbyists.

Can I put a jewel cichlid in a community tank?

Jewel cichlids are often not recommended for community tanks. Their territorial and aggressive nature can lead to conflicts with other fish. It’s best to house them with species that can tolerate their behavior, such as other African cichlids or robust companions.

(1) Klaus Rudloff, CC BY-SA 4.0, via Wikimedia Commons

You May Also Like